DVD ERA COISA DO PASSADO: VIDEODISCOS DA DÉCADA DE 1930

  • AUTHOR: // CATEGORY: Textos

    66 Comments


    The Man With the Flower in his Mouth, uma das primeiras
    encenações gravadas para a TV da história.

    Apesar de parecer novo nos dias de hoje, o fenômeno dos videodiscos não é coisa recente. O histórico do armazenamento (suporte) do vídeo é conhecido hoje em termos de evolução tecnológica da seguinte forma: carretel, cartucho, disco e cartão de memória. Porém, pela história, o videodisco é o primeiro suporte a armazenar vídeo, pois em termos de tecnologia, é comum confundir suporte (disco) com o método de leitura (aí sim, laser ao invés de cabeçotes imantados).
    O primeiro videodisco da história foi inventado em 1927. John Logie Baird, escocês considerado ‘o pai da televisão’, criaria um engenhoso mecanismo que gravaria através de discos de vinil as imagens transmitidas pela TV, o PhonoVision. Um assombro para a época, considerando que era uma iniciativa isolada e a própria televisão só seria demonstrada comercialmente três anos depois. Na Inglaterra, John Logie Baird realizou uma das primeiras transmissões de imagens para a BBC em ondas AM em 1926. Suas experiências com transmissão de imagens, porém, remontam a 1913.
    O disco de vinil, de apenas 30 linhas contra as 400 linhas de resolução do primeiro suporte comercial de gravação magnética (AMPEX Quadruplex 2 polegadas), mais que uma curiosidade científica, é praticamente a certidão de nascimento da gravação em vídeo, e reproduzir aquelas imagens é hoje um verdadeiro desafio. O exemplo mais famoso deste formato que sobreviveu ao tempo é o vinil gravado em 28 de março de 1928, ‘Miss Pounsford’. Trata-se da senhorita Mabel Pounsford apenas balançando a cabeça de um lado para o outro, mas o fato de ter um movimento registrado em um vinil é extremamente complexo até hoje.
    Esta é Miss Pounsford, abaixo, uma foto da mesma pessoa
    Desde 1982 o pesquisador e restaurador escocês Donald F. McLean consegue através do desenvolvimento de um software ‘limpar os fotogramas’ dos discos originais, restaurando e remasterizando as imagens. Porém, existe segundo o próprio McLean ainda uma fraca mostra do que o experimento poderia ter sido, pois o processo de restauração revelou toda sorte de improvisações de Baird ao captar estas imagens. Em 1987, depois de anos afirmando que as imagens originais seriam bem melhores que as restauradas, conseguiu provar a afirmação através de um aparelho que consegue emular o que é visto/gravado, voltando inclusive a uma aceitável imagem construída apenas com 30 linhas. Além do seu livro Restoring Baird’s image, o resultado do trabalho de McLean pode ser visto em seu site pessoal, TheWorld’s Earliest Television Recordings – Restored!

    Outro grande entusiasta do formato, o pesquisador e professor da ILEA Bill Elliott teve uma ideia curiosa ao ter contato com fragmentos de “The Man With the Flower in his Mouth“, considerada a primeira peça teatral televisiva gravada. Juntando os pedaços da gravação original de 1930 em PhonoVision, mais as gravações sonoras e os desenhos das cartelas originais, pensou em ‘recriar’ a peça. Em 1967, convidou alguns atores amadores para reencenar ‘The Man With the Flower…’, mas ele foi além ao recriar também, com ajuda de outros professores e técnicos da época de Baird a câmera de gravação de 30 linhas. Lance Sieveking, o produtor do programa original, acabou saindo de sua aposentadoria para ajudar ativamente na reconstrução. O resultado é uma incrível reconstrução do que talvez fosse aquele formato de gravação. O vídeo do experimento de 1967 pode ser visto aqui. É assistir e se assombrar com o feito, uma reconstituição perfeita de um sistema que tinha tudo para dar errado, mas quis a engenhosidade humana que desse certo mais uma vez.


    Fontes:
    GONTIJO, Silvana. O Livro de Ouro da Comunicação. São Paulo: Ediouro, 2004.
    O vídeo do experimento de 1967: http://www.tvdawn.com/mwfihm.HTM

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