KOK, O CINEMA EM CASA – EM 1912!

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    Projetada pela equipe de Arthur Roussel em 1912, a Pathé Kok (o nome deriva de cock/rooster, galo, símbolo patenteado pela Pathé) era uma pequena câmera que mais parecia uma máquina de costura. Composta de uma base em alumínio que tornava o aparelho quase um portátil, fazia às vezes de câmera e revertia-se para projetor de acordo com a demanda. Com um dínamo instalado em seu interior, permitia o seu uso sem eletricidade, fantástico considerando-se que a energia elétrica ainda era artigo de luxo. O invento tornou-se tão popular que ultrapassou os limites da França e da Europa, sendo comercializado nos EUA com o nome de Pathéscopeem 1914.
    Criada especialmente para o público amador (segundo o releaseda época, especificamente mercado caseiro, escolas, igrejas, clubes e negócios), possuía ainda uma bitola de 28mm, formato completamente incomum mesmo para uma época em que cada um criava seu próprio padrão. Explica-se: a grande maioria dos formatos de bitola nesta época eram na verdade cortes e adaptações da bitola original de 70mm com base de Nitrato da Kodak; o 35mm (meio corte do 70mm) já insinuava-se como padrão a ser seguido (principalmente pela adoção desta bitola pelo Thomas Edison e pelos irmãos Lumiérè); e 17,5mm parecia a escolha óbvia do mercado amador, por ser simples cortar 35mm pelo metade. Mas além de ser 28mm, a maior surpresa deste invento fica por conta da sua emulsão em acetato. Em uma época onde o filme de nitrato era um padrão natural, existir um safety film para o público amador beira o inexplicável; o 28mm pode ser entendido como um dos primeiros suportes/mídias proprietárias da história do cinema. O título do anúncio da Kok resumia seu ambicioso intuito: A mais nova bela distração: sem perigo – sem instalação – sem aprendizagem.
    Quais razões teriam levado a Pathé a criar ambiciosamente um aparato tão diferenciado do que vinha sendo feito até então? Ver e fazer cinema em casa. O anúncio inicial da Kok evidenciava programas completos especialmente compostos para sessões em família. Os principais inventores do começo do cinema então já olhavam para este incipiente público “caseiro” de forma bem atenta, prestando atenção às suas particularidades: Stephanie e Fred Marriott tentam explicar este intuito através do fansite Short History of Home Movies:
    Filmes caseiros começam a ser aceitos. Para várias famílias, o custo de produzir seus próprios filmes era demasiado alto, mas queriam ter o conforto de comprar ou alugar filmes para assistir em casa. Em uma era pré televisão, isso era fascinante. Uma versão caseira do Kinetoscopede Edison e do Cinematograph de Pathé ambicionavam o mesmo público alvo: as pessoas não estavam necessariamente interessadas em criar filmes, mas queriam ver filmes comerciais em casa. Nascem filmotecas, parecidas com as casas especializadas em aluguel de vídeo que crescem rapidamente no começo dos anos 1980.
    Ou seja, pensava-se neste público como potenciais compradores de películas feitas, prontas para o consumo imediato. Pessoas ávidas em ter entretenimento no conforto de suas casas, longe dos sótãos e demais lugares desconfortáveis pelos quais o recém criado cinema passava. Não necessariamente estas pessoas queriam ou estariam dispostas a produzir.
    Outro trecho que merece atenção é o dos indícios de uma filmoteca. Similar ao processo que fundamentou os cineclubes, existia particularmente um incipiente público que queria assistir certos filmes após a distribuição comercial. Para comprovar este fato, catálogos para comprar ou alugar filmes comerciais (disponibilizados em formatos menores como 28mm e 17,5mm) sobreviveram ao tempo, caso do Descriptive list of Pathéscope films, classified, de 1918. Pensar que em menos de dez anos desde o início do cinema já estimava-se que os filmes comerciais poderiam ter sobrevida fora dos centros de exibição causa assombro, pois de certa forma esta ideia é contrária ao que se pensa até hoje sobre a conservação das películas feitas no primeiro cinema. Se as películas deste período são iguais ao jornal de véspera, irrelevantes do ponto de vista histórico e descartáveis uma vez que sua vazão comercial estivesse esgotada (tese defendida por vários historiadores renomados como Leonard Maltin), fica tarefa difícil entender como alguns filmes pretendiam então ter sua vida perpetuada, inclusive em outros suportes mais acessíveis ao público (e, sobretudo, para alugar).
    Segundo dados não oficiais, no final de 1914 já existiam 8 mil Pathéscopesnos lares norte-americanos, e já nota-se um mercado competitivo: pelo menos duas dúzias de invenções para este segmento caseiro haviam sido criadas entre 1896 e 1923 (SINGER, p45). Gozando de certa popularidade, a bitola 28mm chegou a ser considerada o padrão para a categoria filme amador portátil pelo SMPTE. Estima-se que em 1918, 935 títulos de filmes originais em 35mm foram disponibilizados em 28mm para aluguel somente nos Estados Unidos (KATTELLE, 2000), sendo que vários deste filmes atestam ainda o uso da Kok 28mm para fins educacionais (GAUDREAULT et al, 2012). São fortes indícios que a indústria cinematográfica já nasceu com sólidas bases e segmentos que mesmo rudimentares sob um ponto de vista, persistem até os tempos atuais.
    Mas a Kok, apesar de ter mostras da sua popularidade à época e de ter um suporte em 28mm já em filme de segurança, durou apenas dez anos. Seu processo foi interrompido pela Primeira Guerra Mundial, apesar do americanos terem continuado sua fabricação até meados da década de 1920 pela Victor Animatograph Corporation. Hoje quase ninguém se lembra dela, e se existe parca documentação sobre sua existência, existe menos ainda sobre os filmes exclusivos em 28mm. Tecnicamente o suporte em 28mm era falho, e nem podia ser considerado um suporte proprietário de fato se julgarmos suas perfurações: o 28mm francês tinha 3 perfurações na esquerda e apenas uma na direita por frame, contra 3 perfurações em ambos os lados do 28mm americano, o que tornava a Kok e o Pathescope quase que incompatíveis apesar de serem a mesma máquina. Um indício também de como já nasce com o cinema a destruição da memória audiovisual, perdida no meio de tantos suportes criados e destruídos em pouquíssimo tempo, traída pelo frescor da novidade tecnológica.

    Fontes:
    SINGER, Ben. Early Home Cinema and the Edison Home Projecting Kinetoscope. In: Film History, Vol. 2, No. 1.
    A Companion to Early Cinema
    André Gaudreault, Nicolas Dulac, Santiago Hidalgo
    Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, 1964
    Home movies: a history of the American industry, 1897-1979
    Alan Kattelle

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